Instytut Pamięci Narodowej


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The country was in chaos. In January 1945 the Provisional Government moved to Warsaw. In the whole surrounding area of the capital, an organized operation of the security apparatus and the militia was taking place, in order to support the Soviet NKVD forces, which were becoming evermore present in Poland. The dissolution of the Home Army with the executive order from January 19, 1945 had meant that formally, all underground activity was ceded to the backbone structures of “NIE”. Meanwhile, the crippled telecommunication links, the overall informational blockade, and subsequently – the disconnection from the local authorities, led to the situation where out of sheer necessity – new political and military resistance groups begun to spring up. The people – threatened by the possibilities of imprisonment or the forced deportation to Siberia – have fled from their homes and into the woods, unwillingly contributing to the creation of new units of independence partisan movement. Originating as a result of a simple self-defense instinct, the partisans have eventually gotten involved in lunges at the MO and UBP posts (Milicja Obywatelska – Citizen’s Militia, Urząd Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego – Public Security Office), taking their revenge for the repressions.

Upon his return to the Fatherland, Witold Pilecki was just as convinced as the entire Polish society, that the “Polish” communists, were in fact the agents of an enemy empire. It is from this perception, and his unquestionable faithfulness to the military pledge that have bound Pilecki to serve to the rightful government of the Republic of Poland and its military command. In fulfilling his loyalty, Pilecki attempted to expand the contacts of “NIE”, which was struggling to become fully operational. Another blow to the organization, was the revealing of its mechanisms, during the Moscow trial of the 16 leaders of the Underground, in April 1945. This led General Anders to eventually disband “NIE”, on April 15, 1945.

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